3 Common Types of Foodborne Pathogens

Most people experience what they believe to be food poisoning at some point in their lives. It often results in a short-term illness that resolves relatively quickly. However, some cases can be serious and require care from a medical professional. The severity of the illness depends on the pathogen involved, along with the patient’s age and medical history. 

Scientists have been working for decades to figure out what types of bacteria and viruses found in food and water are harmful to people. Using techniques such as electron microscopes, microbiology streaking dish and centrifuges, the isolation and study of foodborne pathogens has made large strides.

1. Norovirus 

One of the most common types of foodborne pathogens in the United States is norovirus. It can be spread through the consumption of contaminated food or water or by person-to-person contact. The symptoms typically occur within two days of transmission and normally last about three days, although people with weakened immune systems may experience a longer duration.

2. Salmonella 

Exposure to food items containing salmonella can result in illness developing anywhere from one day to a week. The duration typically lasts for a week or less. Severe symptoms experienced by at-risk patients can be treated by antibiotics.

3. Escherichia Coli

Eating contaminated food or beverages, or swimming in contaminated water can expose people to E. coli. While not every strain causes diseases, others can cause serious illnesses. Most people exhibit symptoms within 5 to 10 days and recover within a week. 

While it is not possible to completely eliminate all risks, reducing the chances of illness due to foodborne pathogens can be done. Properly handling food and completely cooking it before serving can prevent the spread of viruses and bacteria. Washing raw foods before consumption and avoiding water from unsafe sources can help people stay safe and healthy. 

Capacitor types and Capacitance/Voltmeter


A capacitor is a very commonly used passive component in a circuit. It has two terminals. The capacitors can store energy in an electric field, it acts as a fully charged battery.

How are capacitors made?

The capacitor is made from two conducting plates kept parallel to each other and a dielectric is placed between the plates. The dielectric is made from insulating materials like glass, paper, plastic, ceramic etc. The conducting plates are made from metals like silver, aluminium etc. These plates are connected to the terminal wires.

Working of a capacitor

When an electric current passes through the capacitor, one of the plates of the capacitor gets negatively charged and the other plate gets positively charged. The stationary charges stuck in these plates will create an electric field. Therefore, electric energy is stored in the plates just as the battery stores chemical energy. Let us discuss more on capacitor types and capacitance.

Capacitance of a capacitor

Capacitance is the measure of the capacitors ability to store the electrical charges on the plates. The SI unit of capacitance is Farad. The capacitance is given by the equation

C = q/V

C is the capacitance

q is the charge stored in the plates

V is the applied voltage

The capacitance of the capacitor is one farad when a charge of one coulomb is stored on the plates by a voltage of one volt.

Capacitor types

There are different types of capacitors available in the market. Each of them with different features and drawbacks.

Ceramic capacitors

The most commonly used type of capacitor is ceramic capacitors. The dielectric of the ceramic capacitor is made from ceramic. They are very small in size and have a low capacitance. It is difficult to find a ceramic capacitor with a capacitance greater than 10μF. These capacitors or caps are suitable for high-frequency coupling and decoupling.

Aluminium and Tantalum Electrolytic Capacitors

We get electrolytic capacitors with high capacitance. They can pack a large capacitance in a relatively small volume. The capacitance of an electrolytic capacitor ranges from 1μF to 1mF. They are used in high voltage applications.


The electrolytic capacitors are mostly polarised. They have a positive terminal called the anode and a negative terminal called the cathode. If the voltage is applied in reverse it can damage the capacitor.


Supercapacitors can store a large amount of charge. They are designed to have a large capacitance. The drawback of these capacitors is that they cannot deal with very high voltages.

They are used to store and release energy just like batteries. They release energy much faster than a battery and have a longer lifespan.

Other capacitors

There are many other less common capacitors like the variable capacitors, film capacitors etc.


Do check BYJU’S pages for more details on the working of the devices like Voltmeter and Ammeter. A voltmeter is a device used to measure voltage or the potential difference between two points of the electrical circuit. The voltmeter can be both digital and analog.




How the advances in technology changed online shopping

We are living in the 21st century and we are all able to recognize technology is a huge part of our lives in almost every area. However, one of the industries that constantly adapts to the ever-growing evolution of technology, is the retail industry. This industry is constantly being affected by technology and keeps changing. Since the introduction of online shopping, the sales on stores have decreased while purchasing on the internet has become one of the consumer´s favorite ways of buying. They can purchase anything they want from the comfort of their homes, from the supermarket list, through a baby stroller to a wireless bra. They can find any product at better prices (most of the time), and this is why companies, fabrics and retailers are changing their system.

With the advance of technology, companies are investing more and more money to create online websites where consumers are able to scroll through their products, purchase the ones they like or need, and even save some money.
Throughout the last decade, the advances in technology had been revolutionary, and this impacted people’s lives in several ways. The number of people using the internet has significantly increased, internet shopping grew enormously and so did the level of competition within the cyberspace world. Nowadays, the internet is full of user-friendly platforms for consumers and users to easily buy and sell things or use services without leaving their homes, saving time and effort.

New technologies are benefiting online shoppers

* Internet assistants to guide you: In most websites, customers can find proper assistance to guide them in their purchase or clear any doubts. We are referring to chatbots; they are available 24/7 to provide information about any product or maybe problem or doubt you may have, they can also help you navigate through the website in case you are finding it hard to find something. This way companies can handle their online customers easily.

* The invention of smartphones: Ever since our phones are able to combine the functions of our computer, camera, and cellphone; people can search, purchase or communicate through the web at any time and place. You no longer need to be sitting at your computer or carry your laptop everywhere. Nowadays, people have the chance to purchase anything, anywhere, with just using their cellphones. This has made online purchasing extremely easy. Moreover, considering the huge number of apps that are created every day, which simplifies more and more procedures.

* Virtual assistant on your smartphone: Nowadays you do not even have to scroll the web on your phone when you are trying to buy something. You just need to ask “Siri” or “Google” aloud what is it that you need, and your smartphone virtual assistant will solve your queries.

* Secure payment: Trusted websites assure your payment by adopting modern payments platforms and gateways that have anti-fraud measures, so that your personal and financial information doesn’t get compromised and you can rest assured. Most of these gateways allow you to pay using different payment methods, like credit cards, mobile wallet or net banking. This is how technology keeps making it easier for people to buy online.

The need for convenience and practicality keeps growing

Many factors keep pushing people towards online shopping; avoiding queues at the checkout and dealing with huge crowds of people in the brick and mortar stores are a couple of them. Nowadays, smartphones have become the primary tool for e-commerce transactions, and that enables people to search for products, find the best prices and buy them only in a matter of minutes with just pressing a few “buttons”.
There is also a growing need for subscription services, this way consumers receive the products straight to their homes (weekly or monthly) without even having to make the purchase, as it is already registered.
In addition, people feel the need to get smart objects, such as fridges that are designed to register an inventory of the products inside and automatically place an order to the supermarket for the items that are about to run out. What is more convenient than that?

In conclusion

Technology has made the purchasing of goods and products easier and more convenient. It has created a more advanced platform for consumers to conveniently consume more efficiently and fast.

Reverse Image Search

Ever wondered how fast the technology is progressing? Well, nowadays everything is based on searching and getting quick results. In classic times, we were supposed to sit besides the T.V antennas so the signal wouldn’t break and now that issue is no more because of fiber cables. That is technology.

Reverse Image search is another progressive innovation that is brought into life by the big sharks out there including Google Inc. In order to break down the features of ‘RIS’, lets first discuss the idea and aim behind this technology.

What is Reverse Image Search?

In the old times when we had to dial up networks to get connected to the internet, we had to type in words to explain about we are searching for. Now, Google has made it easy to search for images that one cannot explain in words.

A reverse image search is similar to online search but different in input. Instead of words, we upload image in order to find out the necessary information according to our requirements. This feature enables the user to discover the images that they want by simply providing a sample in the search engine.

How Reverse Image Search Works?

In technical terminology, reverse image search works via a query technique famously known as CBIR (Content-based image retrieval) or QBIC (Query by image content). In order to find out what you are looking for; simply upload the sample image to craft a search query.

This alternatively excludes the need of a keyword that is used to guess and find what you are looking for.  Hence, therefore, you can achieve a lot by using this technique the right way.


If you want to use the reverse image search technology to find out different information about your images, then there wouldn’t be a better option than Kleptofinder. This tool withholds the art of knowing everything about images and meta descriptions.

How it works?

Kleptofinder automatically uploads the images and tells you the exact location of your images being reused again and again. This eventually reduces the human effort of uploading and checking your images manually.

Here are a few steps to make sure that your images are not being stolen or used for an illegal act.

  1. Register to the website: Kleptofinder.com
  2. Subscribe to your desired security package
  3. Sit tight and let out artificial intelligent do the work.

That’s it! No more hassle about engaging into stuff repetitively to make sure that everything is in its place. All of the details about the images will be provided automatically by the Kleptofinder Reverse Image Artificial Intelligence.

Now you will be able to take control of your digital world and make sure that your creative pictures getting the treatment they require. Gain your legal strength by finding out the places where your images are being uploaded without your consent.

Wrapping it up!

Reverse image search is now a thing, known to a lot of people but some still do not know the exact purpose and reliability of this technology. Kleptofinder can be your bodyguard body at getting the right treatment for your images and hard work.

How To Care for Your Mobile Phone

With cellphones being more reliable and more functional than ever, people are relying on them more and more. A broken or malfunctioning phone can cripple your ability to go about your daily life.

However, like many other electronics, cellphones have certain vulnerabilities and sometimes need mobile phone repairs Midland TX. Knowing how to care for your phone properly could help to prolong its useful life.

1. Keep It Clean

Between holding it to your face and operating the touch screen with your fingers, cellphones get dirty quickly and easily. This can make it more difficult to see what you are doing and put you at risk for contracting germs. You should clean your mobile phone often but do it in a way that will not damage it. Only clean the outside, and don’t use a spray bottle.

2. Observe Climate Conditions

Exposure to moisture and temperature extremes can damage your phone. It doesn’t take much moisture to damage a cellphone, so protect it from rain, seawater, food and beverages, etc. Don’t leave your phone out in the cold, and keep it away from direct sunlight and other heat sources.

3. Use a Phone Case or Cover

A cover for your phone provides a good degree of protection from many of the things that can damage it. It also helps to protect the phone from dirt and germs while allowing you to still operate it.

4. Avoid Dropping Your Phone

You probably know that the impact to your phone from dropping it from a height can do damage to it that may be severe. Therefore, you probably avoid intentionally dropping your phone, but if you drop it accidentally, the potential for damage is the same. It may help to use a cellphone lanyard that allows you to wear the phone around your neck. Therefore, even if you do accidentally drop your phone, it will not fall to the ground and get broken.

As mobile phone technology continues to evolve and become more efficient, your dependence on it is likely to increase over time. This makes it even more important to protect your investment.

Interesting Uses for the 5 States of Matter

Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space, and it can occur in five different forms: solid, liquid, gas, plasma, and Bose-Einstein condensate. Here is a description of each state of matter and some ways people use it.

1. Gas

When matter is in its gaseous state, its molecules or atoms are far apart and moving around rapidly. Besides breathing oxygen gas to stay alive, people use gases for the following things:

  • Tire inflation
  • Carbonation of soft drinks
  • Heating of homes

2. Plasma

A plasma is a gas whose atoms have absorbed so much energy that they become ionized. Plasma has some interesting uses, such as these:

3. Liquid

The particles of a liquid have more attraction for each other than those of a gas does, and the liquid flows as the particles move past each other. Uses of water and other liquids include the following:

4. Solid

Anything that has a definite shape is considered a solid. Its particles are aligned very closely to each other and can only vibrate, rather than move around. The uses of solids are practically endless, but here are a few notable ones:

5. Bose-Einstein Condensate

A Bose-Einstein condensate occurs when atoms or molecules become so cold that they slow down to almost a complete stop. This state of matter is the least well-known, and also has the fewest uses. Once purely hypothetical, scientists have observed it under laboratory conditions only a few times. Thus, its only use, for now, is in scientific research.

Take a few minutes to look around and consider what states of matter exist in the room where you are. You may be surprised at the diverse states in which things exist. 

The Importance of Communications Technology

Infоrmаtіоn аnd Cоmmunісаtіоnѕ Technology (ICT) has аn important role іn thе world ѕіnсе wе are now іn thе information аgе еrа. Wіth ICT, thе соmраnу can mаkе thе business еаѕіеr tо hарреn wіth thе сlіеnt, ѕuррlіеr аnd thе dіѕtrіbutоr. It is also vеrу іmроrtаnt іn оur daily lіvеѕ. The lack of аррrорrіаtе іnfоrmаtіоn at thе rіght tіmе wіll rеѕult in low рrоduсtіvіtу, lоw quality rеѕеаrсh works, and wаѕtе оf tіmе tо рurѕuе іnfоrmаtіоn аnd even tо dо research whісh асtuаllу others had done оr іn оthеr соuntrіеѕ. Nоwаdауѕ ICT cannot bе ѕераrаtеd with оur dаіlу nееdѕ.

ICT has a grеаt іmрасt in оur dаіlу lіvеѕ. For еxаmрlе, we can rеаd our lосаl nеwѕрареr uѕіng thе оnlіnе nеwѕрареr. Anоthеr еxаmрlе іѕ wе still саn get соnnесtеd wіth our family, rеlаtіvеѕ, оr соllеаguеѕ even іf wе аrе abroad bу uѕіng thе electronic mail, yahoo mеѕѕеngеr, саll соnfеrеnсе, оr vіdео conference. What can also read about what is codelab.

Dіgіtаl computer and networking hаѕ сhаngеd оur economy соnсерt tо thе economy wіth nо boundary in tіmе and space bесаuѕе оf ICT. It brings a lоt оf аdvаntаgеѕ fоr есоnоmіс development enabling millions оf trаnѕасtіоnѕ tо happen іn an easy and fаѕt wау.

ICT is оnе of thе economic dеvеlорmеnt ріllаrѕ tо gain nаtіоnаl соmреtіtіvе аdvаntаgе. It саn іmрrоvе thе quality of humаn life bесаuѕе it саn be uѕеd as a lеаrnіng аnd education mеdіа, thе mаѕѕ communication mеdіа іn рrоmоtіng аnd campaigning рrасtісаl аnd іmроrtаnt іѕѕuеѕ, ѕuсh as the hеаlth аnd ѕосіаl аrеа. It provides wіdеr knоwlеdgе and саn help іn gаіnіng аnd accessing іnfоrmаtіоn.

ICT hаѕ bесоmе аn іntеgrаl part of everyday life fоr many people. It іnсrеаѕеѕ its іmроrtаnсе іn реорlе’ѕ lіvеѕ аnd it іѕ еxресtеd thаt this trend wіll соntіnuе, to thе extent thаt ICT literacy wіll become a funсtіоnаl requirement for реорlе’ѕ work, ѕосіаl, and реrѕоnаl lіvеѕ.

Thе use of ICT іn еduсаtіоn add vаluе in teaching аnd lеаrnіng, bу еnhаnсіng thе еffесtіvеnеѕѕ оf learning, оr by аddіng a dіmеnѕіоn tо learning thаt wаѕ not previously аvаіlаblе. ICT mау also be a ѕіgnіfісаnt mоtіvаtіоnаl factor іn students’ learning, аnd саn ѕuрроrt students’ еngаgеmеnt wіth соllаbоrаtіvе lеаrnіng.

Infоrmаtіоn аnd Cоmmunісаtіоnѕ Tесhnоlоgу (ICT) іѕ basically оur ѕосіеtу’ѕ efforts tо tеасh іtѕ current аnd еmеrgіng citizens valuable knowledge and skills аrоund computing аnd communications dеvісеѕ, software thаt ореrаtеѕ thеm, аррlісаtіоnѕ thаt run оn them and systems that аrе built wіth thеm.

Aѕ a mаttеr оf fасt, wе аrе lіvіng in a соnѕtаntlу еvоlvіng digital wоrld. ICT has аn impact оn nearly еvеrу аѕресt of our lіvеѕ – frоm working tо ѕосіаlіzіng, lеаrnіng to рlауіng. Thе digital аgе hаѕ trаnѕfоrmеd thе wау уоung реорlе соmmunісаtе, nеtwоrk, ѕееk hеlр, ассеѕѕ іnfоrmаtіоn аnd learn. Wе muѕt rесоgnіzе thаt young people аrе now аn оnlіnе population аnd ассеѕѕ іѕ thrоugh a variety оf means such as соmрutеrѕ, TV аnd mоbіlе phones.

The Best Movies of All Time

Can you recall at least one movie that has been your absolute favorite to date? We are sure you can! But it is not necessary that everyone agrees with your movie taste. Different types of people prefer different movie genres. This is why any debate over the variety of elements that produce the best movies of all time is time-wasting and pointless.

To make everyone happy, we decided to put together a list of all-time favorite movie masterpieces. No matter what you are looking for action, drama, comedy, romance, horror, mystery, and thriller. There are certain film, which if you have never watched them before, now may be a perfect time to check them out. So, let’s dig in.

Citizen Kane

Genre: Mystery / Drama

Year of Release: 1941

Directed by: Orson Welles

Cast: Orson Welles, Dorothy Comingore, Joseph Cotten, Ray Collins, Ruth Warrick

Written by: Orson Welles, Herman J. Mankiewicz

IMDb Rating: 8.3 / 10

Citizen Kane is a mystery revolving around the final utterance of the publishing tycoon, Charles Foster Kane. The movie is bound to keep you guessing till the last minute as reporters continue their investigation to find the hidden meaning behind the tycoon’s last words; ‘Rosebud’.


Genre: Romance / Drama / War

Year of Release: 1942

Directed by: Michael Curtiz

Cast: Ingrid Bergman, Humphrey Bogart, Paul Henreid, Conrad Veidt, Claude Rains

Written by: Philip G. Epstein, Julius J. Epstein, Howard Koch, Murray Burnett, Joan Alison

IMDb Rating: 8.5 / 10

Casablanca is a story about a cynical American emigrant who strives to make up his mind about whether or not he should offer help to his ex-lover and her refugee husband in running away from French Morocco.

The Dark Knight

Genre: Crime / Drama / Action

Year of Release: 2008

Directed by: Christopher Nolan

Cast: Christian Bale, Aaron Eckhart, Michael Caine, Heath Ledger, Maggie Gyllenhaal

Written by: Christopher Nolan, Jonathan Nolan, David S. Goyer, Bob Kane

IMDb Rating: 9.0 / 10


When the danger, also called the Joker, inflicts disorder and destruction on the residents of Gotham City, Batman must take it as one of the most difficult physical and psychological tests of his powers and ability ]to fight cruelty, brutality, corruption, and injustice.


Singin’ in the Rain

Genre: Romance / Musical / Comedy

Year of Release: 1952

Directed by: Gene Kelly, Stanley Donen

Cast: Donald O’Connor, Gene Kelly, Jean Hagen, Debbie Reynolds, Millard Mitchell

Written by: Adolph Green, Betty Comden

IMDb Rating: 8.3 / 10

Singin’ in the rain is a light transition story of a production company from silent films to talkies. You will enjoy witnessing the difficulties that the film cast faces during the transition to music.



Genre: Thriller / Horror / Mystery

Year of Release: 1960

Directed by: Alfred Hitchcock

Cast: Anthony Perkins, Janet Leigh, Vera Miles, John Gavin, Martin Balsam

Written by: Robert Bloch, Joseph Stefano

IMDb Rating: 8.5 / 10


A perfect combination of horror and mystery, Psycho is a movie about a phoenix secretary who steals $40,000 from one of her employer’s clients, escapes quickly, and ends up in a remote motel that a young man runs under the authority of his mother.


Apocalypse Now

Genre: War / Drama / Mystery

Year of Release: 1979

Directed by: Francis Ford Coppola

Cast: Martin Sheen, Sam Bottoms, Marlon Brando, Frederic Forrest, Robert Duvall

Written by: Francis Ford Coppola, John Milius, Michael Herr

IMDb Rating: 8.4 / 10


Apocalypse now is a film about a US Army officer, Captain Willard, who serves in Vietnam. He is ordered to go to Cambodia on a threatening mission to murder a treacherous colonel who not only considers himself as a god but has also somehow managed to gain the trust of a local ethnic group.

Bottom Line

There are undoubtedly several amazing, brilliant, and worth-watching movies out there that you may not find in our aforementioned list of top movies. We have tried our best to cover all genres in our list though. So, what are you waiting for? Subscribe to the best Cable TV providers in your area, grab a box of popcorn, and start binge-watching your favorite movies right now!

How To Prepare Your Home for the Fall and Winter Months

As the weather turns colder, your home may require some additional attention. To ensure that you are ready for the chillier weather this fall and winter, here are a few tips to help you prepare.

Clean up Leaves

As the weather changes, so do the leaves. The brilliant colors of autumn also can leave you with a considerable cleanup. If you aren’t careful, unkempt leaves can leave you with slick and dangerous conditions. Make sure that you hire someone to manage leaf clean up Kent and avoid any potentially risky situations.

Seal off Holes and Energy Leaks

As you ready yourself for colder temperatures, you will want to ensure that your home has the proper insulation. Make sure that you seal off vulnerable areas around your home where energy can escape. By sealing this off now, you can ensure that the warmth in your home stays inside this winter, letting you avoid exorbitant energy expenses.

Check Your Chimney

For those with functional chimneys in their homes, this is the perfect time to check them. Before firing up your fireplace, you need to ensure that the chimney is free of debris and properly cleaned. If you don’t handle this, you can lead to dangerous outcomes and could even start a fire. Don’t let yourself forget about this to ensure that you have a warm and safe home ready for the cold months.

Review Your Roof’s Condition

Another step that is key for homeowners is checking the roof. You need to review its condition because with the cold months can come snow, falling leaves and debris. The weight of snow and other built-up debris on top of a compromised roof can lead to costly damage and scary outcomes. You can make sure that you are ready for the winter’s wrath with a few quick checks of your roof before the weather turns.

With the beautiful changing of leaves, comes a time of preparation for many homeowners. Make sure that everyone can stay happy, healthy and safe this season with these few tips.

Benefits of Hiring a Junk Removal Service

Do you have a lot of junk on your property? If you do, you aren’t alone. You may, however, want to think about a junk removal service and here is why.


If you have ever tried to clean up property on your own, then you know how difficult it can be. It is a taxing job that can take days to finish. Your time should matter and there is a value on it. When you hire a company, you are most likely going to pay between $150 and $350. Of course, it is possible that you may have to pay more, if you have a particularly large piece of property with exceptional junk removal needs. The cost of junk removal is typically affordable compared to how much it would cost you to remove the junk from your property.

Environmentally Friendly

If you are worried about the environment, you can find a junk removal service that also cares about it. There are a lot of services that focus on recycling before taking junk to a landfill. The contractors can sort through the junk on your property and decide what objects or equipment can be recycled. You don’t have to do all of the work yourself.


It can be dangerous to remove junk on your own. For instance, if you have garbage from a renovation, there could be wood with nails and other dangerous pieces mixed in. In this case, it may be safer to hire a junk removal service. If you think that you need to, then make sure that you know what to look for in Palo Alto Garbage Collection Palo Alto residents trust.

To hire a junk removal service can save you time and money when you need to clean your property. Often junk removal is a more environmentally friendly option and can be much safer than taking care of the property on your own.